Korean Journal of Ukrainian Studies
Department of Ukrainian Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
Korean Journal of Ukrainian Studies (KJUS) is published by the Department of Ukrainian Studies, a member of the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies. KJUS is published in December each year. This journal is indexed and abstracted in Korean Citation Index (KCI).
KJUS seeks theoretical or empirical research discussions about Ukraine and neighboring nations with an interdisciplinary approach in the area of arts, culture, folklore, anthropology, literature, linguistics, history, economy, politics, international relations and society. The editors also invite submissions from researchers in all fields of humanities and social science.
KJUS aims to promote the development of Ukrainian Studies in Korea and exchange various ideas, perspectives and research methods among researchers who are devoted to Ukrainian Studies around the world. KJUS publishes rigorous theoretical and empirical research papers, review articles, and book reviews.
KJUS is published once a year (December 30) in online version by the Department of Ukrainian Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Korea. For details regarding manuscript submission, please refer to “Submission Guidelines” page or contact the editor at email@example.com
Insights & Opinions
The Oldest Authentic Writing Artifact from L’viv
Volodymyr Petehyrych & Oleksandra Antoniv
The article is devoted to an interesting archeological discovery made in L’viv. It is a writing tool made of bronze. It has the form of a rod pointed on one side, which ended in a flat blade with a cross-shaped slot at the other end. The tradition of using such tools for teaching literacy and short writing dates back to ancient times. They were called “stylus” in Latin and “stylos” in Greek, while in Kyivan Rus such tools were called “pysalo” (“a writing tool”). The sharp end of the tool was used to scratch inscriptions on a waxed board, birch bark, clay, plaster or even a lead plate. The written word was corrected or completely smoothed out with a spatula. Mapping of writing instruments of this type (10 finds) shows their obvious concentration in the modern territory of western Ukraine and partly in neighboring Belarus and Poland, which were a part of the Halychyna and Volyn Principality in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
These writing tools were also used for writing on birch bark (so-called birch-bark manuscripts). Three manuscripts of this type, one of which has been preserved in full and which deals with the repayment of the debt, were found near L’viv, in ancient Zvenyhorod. The writing tool found in L’viv also suggests the existence of a literacy school in the city, the main task of which was to teach children to read and write. In the oldest city of L’viv region, namely Belz, known since 1030, the traces of such school were found. They are reported by written sources, which also contain data on the spread of literacy and writing among the elite of the time. However, written sources do not have any information about the literacy of ordinary city residents. Archaeologists in many cities of the Halychyna and Volyn Principality found writing instruments and objects with Cyrillic inscriptions. These findings, among which the most important are the above-mentioned writing tools, show that such a cultural phenomenon was characteristic not only of the elite part of society, but also of many members of the “silent majority” of the urban population.